There are two ways to transition to weight-shift control (WSC) LSA (light-sport aircraft) trike.
You can go for the “adding a category” at the sport pilot level which is being trained by one CFI and then taking a proficiency check with another CFI per 61.321. Here there are no minimum hours required, no knowledge test, no solo and it is a logbook endorsement for an additional category. An FAA 8710-11 form is sent into the FAA to add this to your current pilot certificate. Even if you are a private pilot or ATP airplane, you must fly with the sport pilot limitations of 61.315 except you do not need any of the airspeed or airspace endorsements as specified in 61.303.
If you add a new category per 61.321, this does now count as a flight review based on a new legal interpretation. So if you want to add a trike category to an airplane rating this can count as your flight review.
Also note you do not have to solo to add a category per 61.321.
You can also go for the Private Pilot WSC Trike. This is almost like starting from scratch. It is like adding a new private pilot category such as helicopter. You need all the 20 hours dual training in WSC plus 10 hours of solo plus all of the cross country requirements per 61.109 (j). You get a break with no knowledge test required and 10 hours of airplane to equal the 20 dual and 10 solo in the airplane or other category. This gives you the privileges of a private pilot for the trike without the limitations of the sport pilot.
We have the capability to do either here at Sport Aviation Center. We have two trike CFI’s for the sport pilot proficiency check option, and two private pilot CFI’s and a private pilot examiner (Paul Hamilton).
How long does it take for an airplane pilot to transition to a WSC trike?
Trike controls are different than the three axis airplane. New skills/habits must be learned by the airplane pilot. It is very different at first for an airplane pilot because you take away the thin walls that provide a false sense of security of being inside something, you take away the horizon reference the pilot usually uses to control the aircraft, than you reverse all the controls so nothing is familiar. It is like learning to ride a motorcycle after just driving a car. We can all do it it is simply different.
Typically, airplane pilots feel disoriented for the first 20 minutes, and must “think” about the movements for the first hours of flight. But it is very interesting how some pilots pick it up really quick and others it takes a while. This large variance in how quick an airplane pilot feels comfortable flying a trike is not easily explained. The “danger zone” for an airplane pilot is the time between when they feel comfortable flying the trike and when the correct body motion habits are developed for flying in bumps. Some pilots can feel comfortable flying a trike in as little at 5 hours in calm air, but it typically takes at least 20 to 50 hours for the proper habits to be developed to instinctively do the right pitch and roll movements in bumpy air when things get challenging.
The dreaded “control reversal” unfortunately is common for airplane pilots transitioning to trikes.
The main danger is flying close to the ground in bumps where pushing out to slow up and increase pitch angle and pulling in to speed up to reduce pitch is critical. Some pilots pick it up quickly, others take longer. It is a matter of learning to “fly the wing” rather than move and coordinate the controls. It is in those “moments of truth” when airplane pilots get pitched up or down when the old airplane control habits may come out and cause a problem. The shortest flight hours for a pilot to transition from airplane to trike has been 8 hours and the longest has been 25 hours. Even as it may appear the airplane pilot is doing great in the trike, we always make sure to fly in bumps to assure the transitioning pilot does not still have this “control reversal” deep in his/her brain.
We highly recommend any transitioning airplane pilot fly at least 30 hours in calm air before flying in the bumps.
I have found that 150 to 500 hour airplane pilots take the longest to learn. ATP, helicopter and jet pilots appear to pick it up quicker. Perhaps the low to medium time airplane pilots are still trying to think about the movements and the body language habits are highly ingrained. The high time pilots fly more by feel of the aircraft.
A number of analogies used that work on most airplane pilots are:
- It is like the stick is on the top of the wing and you are controlling it from the bottom
- it is like driving the car with your hands on the bottom of the wheel rather than the top.
- It is like a motorcycle, pull in/lower your self to resist drag and speed up, push out to go slow, sit up and cruise
- Move/pull your self in the direction you want to go
- The wing is in your hand, there are no controls
Usually one of the above assists in airplane pilots transitioning to trikes.
Overall, the best way to transition is to get the DVD’s and watch them and start to visualize that to do before you start doing it. This visualization usually is a big help in reducing the time it takes to transition.
Training materials for a transition trike pilot are:
- Training Syllabus and Workbook Weight Shift Control Trike
- FAA Weight Shift Control aircraft Flying Handbook
- Weight-Shift Control Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
- Learn to fly a trike DVD
- Sport Pilot Checkride book
All these can be found at www.pilot-stores.com
How do we go through the training process?
Typically, we follow the training syllabus of a new pilot learning to fly. This provides the most efficient procedure for transition pilots.
What do you get when you complete a proficiency check to add a trike to your private/commercial/ATP pilot certificate?
After you complete your proficiency check, 8710-11 paperwork is sent into the FAA and they send you a new pilot certificate with the added category and you get a log book endorsement for the added category/class by the instructor who performed the proficiency check.